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    Table of contents: Grammar21 22 23 24 25
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Chapters: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 | 21-25 |26-30 | 31-35

 Chapter 21: Modal Verbs

21.0
21.1
21.2
21.2.1
21.2.2
21.2.3
21.2.4
21.2.5
21.2.6

21.3.1
21.3.2
21.3.3
21.3.4
21.3.5

Modal verbs - an introduction
Conjugation of modal verbs with a plain verb
Modal verb in German
wollen = to want to
müssen = must, to have to
möchten = to like
dürfen = may
sollen = shall
nicht brauchen = to not need to

Exercise 1: modal verbs
Exercise 2: reported speech
Exercise 3: reported speech II
Exercise 4: translation
Exercise 5: modal verbs II


 Chapter 22: Conjunctions
 

22.0
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9
22.10
22.11
22.12
22.13
22.14
22.15
22.16
22.17
22.18
22.19
22.20
22.21
22.22
22.23
22.24
22.25
22.26
22.27
22.28
22.29
22.30
22.31
22.32
22.33
22.34
22.35
22.36
22.37
22.38
22.39
22.40
22.41
22.42
22.43
22.44
22.45
22.46
22.47
22.48
22.49
22.50
22.51
22.52
22.53
22.54
22.55
22.56
22.57
22.58
22.59
22.60
22.61
22.62
22.63
22.64
22.65
22.66
22.67
22.68
22.69
22.70
22.71
22.72
22.73
22.74
22.75
22.76
22.77
22.78
22.79
22.80
22.81
22.82

22.83

22.84
22.85
22.86

Conjunctions - an introduction
aber = but
aber allein = but only
aber auch = but also
aber selbst gesetzt den Fall = even in case that
aber dennoch = but still
aber doch = but still
aber trotzdem = but even though
allein die Tatsache dass = the mere fact that
als = when
eher.... als dass = rather ... than, it's more likely that ... than
also = this means
anstatt = instead of
auch wenn = even if
bis = until
da = since
dass = that
denn = because
dennoch = anyway, still
deshalb = that's why
doch = but
ehe = before
entweder ... oder = either ... or
falls = if
gesetzt den Fall = in case
selbst gesetzt den Fall = even in case
gleichwohl = anyway, still
im Falle dass = in case that
indem = by + gerund
insofern als = in this respect
und insofern = and in this respect
insoweit = insofar, as far as
je ... desto = the ... the
jedoch = but
nachdem = after
nun = now
nur = only
nur insoweit = only as far as
ob = whether
obgleich = even though, although
obschon = even though, although
obwohl = even though, although
obzwar = even though, although
oder = or
oder vielmehr = or rather
ohne = without
ohne dass = without that
seitdem = since
so... wie = as ... as
solange = as long as, while
sowie = as soon as, when
sodass
= (so) that
sofern = as long as
sondern = but
sondern auch = but also
soweit = as far as
sowohl ... als auch = as well as
statt = instead
um zu = for
und = and
und da = and because
und daher = and therefore
und darum = and therefore
und dennoch = and still
und deshalb = and therefore
und deswegen = and therefore
und doch = and still
und so = and so
und somit = and so
und zudem = and in addition
und zwar = no literal translation
ungeachtet der Tatsache dass = notwithstanding the fact that
weil = because
wenn = if
wenn auch = although
wenngleich = even though, although
wenn... schon = if ... then
wohingegen = whereas
während = while
zu = to
zudem = additionally
zumal = especially as
warum = why

Summary

Exercise 1:
Exercise 2:
Exercise 3:


 Chapter 23: Relative Clauses
23.0
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.7
23.8
23.9

23.10.1
23.10.2
23.10.3
23.10.4
23.10.5

Relative clauses - an introduction
What's a relative pronoun?
What determines gender, number and declension of a relative pronoun?
Relative pronouns that are not declined
Relative pronouns - der, die, das
Relative clauses that determine places and times
Relative clauses that determine ideas
Alternative relative pronouns
Relative pronouns - wofür, womit, woran, worauf
Relative pronouns with prepositions

Exercise 1:
Exercise 2:
Exercise 3:
Exercise 4:
Exercise 5:


 Chapter 24: Adjectives
24.1
24.2
24.2.1
24.2.1.1
24.2.1.2
24.2.1.3
24.2.1.4
24.2.1.5
24.2.2
24.2.2.1
24.2.2.2
24.2.2.3
24.2.2.4
24.2.2.5
24.2.3
24.2.3.1
24.2.3.2
24.2.3.3
24.2.3.4
24.2.3.5
24.2.4
24.2.4.1
24.2.4.2
24.2.4.3
24.2.4.4
24.2.4.5
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.5.1
24.5.2

24.6.1
24.6.2
24.6.3
24.6.4
24.6.5
24.6.6
24.6.7
24.6.8
24.6.9
24.6.10
24.6.11
24.6.12
24.6.13
24.6.14
Adjectives - an introduction
declension of adjectives
declension of adjectives without articles
declension of an adjective before a neutral noun
declension of an adjective before a masculine noun
declension of an adjective before a feminine noun
Summary
Examples
declension of adjectives with indefinite articles
declension of an adjective with indefinite article before a neutral noun
declension of an adjective with indefinite article before a masculine noun
declension of an adjective with indefinite article before a feminine noun
Summary
Examples
Adjectives with definite articles
declension of an adjective with definite article before a neutral noun
declension of an adjective with definite article before a masculine noun
declension of an adjective with definite article before a feminine noun
Summary
Examples
Adjectives with personal pronouns
declension of an adjective with personal pronoun before a neutral noun
declension of an adjective with personal pronoun before a masculine noun
declension of an adjective with personal pronoun before a feminine noun
Summary
Examples
Summary
Examples
declension of substantivated adjectives
What's a substantivated adjective?
declension of substantivated adjectives

Exercise 1:
Exercise 2:
Exercise 3:
Exercise 4:
Exercise 5:
Exercise 6:
Exercise 7:
Exercise 8:
Exercise 9:
Exercise 10:
Exercise 11:
Exercise 12:
Exercise 13:
Exercise 14:


 Chapter 25: Adverbs
25.0
25.1
25.2
25.3

25.4
25.4.1
25.4.2
25.4.2.1
25.4.2.1.1
25.4.2.1.1.1
25.4.2.1.1.2
25.4.2.1.2
25.4.2.1.2.1
25.4.2.1.2.2
25.4.2.1.2.3
25.4.2.1.2.4
25.4.2.1.2.5
25.4.2.2
25.4.2.2.1
25.4.2.2.1.1
25.4.2.2.1.2
25.4.2.2.2
25.4.2.2.2.1
25.4.2.2.2.2
25.4.2.2.2.3
25.4.2.2.2.4
25.4.2.2.2.5
25.4.2.3
25.4.2.3.1
25.4.2.3.1.1
25.4.2.3.1.2
25.4.2.3.2
25.4.2.3.2.1
25.4.2.3.2.2
25.4.2.3.2.3
25.4.2.4
25.4.2.4.1
25.4.2.4.2
25.4.2.4.3
25.4.2.4.4
25.4.2.4.5
25.4.2.6
25.4.2.4.7
25.4.2.4.8
25.4.2.4.9
25.4.2.4.10
25.4.2.4.11
25.4.2.4.12
25.4.2.4.13
25.4.2.4.14
25.4.2.4.15
25.4.2.4.16
25.4.3
25.4.3.1
25.4.3.1.1
25.4.3.1.2
25.4.3.1.3
25.4.3.1.4
25.4.3.2
25.4.3.2.1
25.4.3.2.2
25.4.3.2.3
25.4.3.2.4
25.4.3.2.5
25.4.3.2.6
25.4.3.2.7
25.4.3.3
25.4.3.3.1
25.4.3.3.2
25.4.3.3.3
25.4.3.3.4
25.4.3.3.5

25.4.3.3.6
25.4.3.3.7
25.4.3.3.8
25.4.3.3.9
25.4.3.3.10
25.4.3.3.11
25.4.3.3.12
25.4.4
25.4.4.1
25.4.4.1.1
25.4.4.1.2
25.4.4.1.3
25.4.4.1.4
25.4.4.1.5
25.4.4.1.6
25.4.4.1.7
25.4.4.1.8
25.4.4.1.9
25.4.4.1.10
25.4.4.2
25.4.4.2.1
25.4.4.2.2
25.4.4.2.3
25.4.4.2.4
25.4.4.2.5
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
25.8.1
25.8.2
25.8.3
25.8.4
25.8.5
25.8.6
25.8.7
25.8.8
25.8.9
25.8.10
25.8.11
25.8.12
25.8.13
25.8.14
25.8.15
25.8.16
25.8.17
25.8.18
25.8.19

25.9.1
25.9.2
25.9.3
25.9.4
25.9.5
25.9.6

Adverbs - an introduction
Adverbs are invariable (independent from gender, number, declension)
Adverb and their circumstances
Formation of adverbs

Types of adverbs
Adverbs of location
Adverbs of time
Adverbs indicating past events
Absolute adverbs indicating past events
gestern = yesterday
vorgestern = the day before yesterday
Relative adverbs indicating past events
bereits = already
eben, soeben = just
vorhin = a little while ago
früher, damals = in those times, then
anfangs = in the beginning
Adverbs indicating present events
Absolute adverbs indicating present events
heute = today
heutzutage = nowadays
Relative adverbs indicating present events
nun, jetzt = now
nun... endlich, jetzt.... endlich = finally
gerade = right now (to be doing something)
sofort = right now
gegenwärtig = at the moment
Adverbs indicating future events
Absolute adverbs indicating future events
morgen = tomorrow
übermorgen = the after tomorrow
Relative adverbs indicating future events
bald, demnächst = shortly
danach *, hinterher = after
später = later
Adverbs indicating repetition
wieder = again
immer wieder = again and again
oft = often
ziemlich oft = quite often
öfter / oft = often
oftmals = often
mehrmals = repeatedly
immer, stets = always
ewig = always
nie, niemals = never
mittags = at noon, nachmittags = in the afternoon
endlich = finally
schließlich = finally
abends = in the evening
morgens = in the morning
nachts = in the night
Modal adverbs
Adverbs to be used only before adjectives or other adverbs
sehr = very
besonders = especially
außerordentlich = extraordinary
merkwürdig = strange, weird
Adverbs to be used only before verbs
sicher, bestimmt = surely
absichtlich = by purpose
versehentlich, aus Versehen = by accident
vermutlich, wahrscheinlich, möglicherweise, vielleicht* = probably, possibly
natürlich, gewiss*, sicher = naturally, surely
unbedingt, auf jeden Fall = in any case
gar nicht, überhaupt nicht = not at all
Adverbs to be used before an adverb, adjective or a verb
fast, beinahe = almost
kaum = hardly
nicht unbedingt = not necessarily
gewiss = surely
Keineswegs, keinesfalls, überhaupt nicht, auf keinen Fall = no way, not at all, under no circumstances
vorsichtshalber = as a precaution
vergebens, umsonst = in vain, for nothing
normalerweise = normally
schlimmstenfalls = at the worst
glücklicherweise = fortunately
verständlicherweise = understandably
bestenfalls = at the best
Pronominal adverbs
da + preposition
daran = with this
dafür = for this
dabei = with this
damit = with this
darüber = about this
darüber = above this
darum = about this
dadurch = by this
dagegen = against this
dazu = at this
wo + preposition
worauf
womit
wovon
wovor
wozu
Position of adverbs
Inversion of the position within the sentence
Adverbs with Dative
Adverbs with prepositions
beliebt bei = favored by
arm an = poor in
blass vor = pale because of
betroffen von = concerned
frei von = free of
eifersüchtig auf = jealous of
fähig zu = capable
bekümmert über = sorrowed by
begeistert sein = to be excited
entsetzt über
= shocked by
besessen von = obsessed by
überzeugt sein von = to be convinced
verwundert über = surprised by
zufrieden mit = content with
interessiert an = interested in
schädlich für= bad vor
verwandt mit = related to
zurückhaltend gegenüber = reserved towards
stolz auf = proud of

Exercise 1:
Exercise 2:
Exercise 3:
Exercise 4:
Exercise 5:
Exercise 6:

   

 
previous chapters
Chapters: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 | 21-25 |26-30 | 31-35